Bittium NeurOne Tesla EEG System*

Bittium NeurOne is an innovative monitoring solution for neuroscience measurements. It is developed for the needs of medical professionals and scientists to detect simultaneously high accuracy neurophysiological signals from multiple channels without compromising data integrity. Bittium NeurOne technology challenges traditional neurophysiological laboratory systems with:

The Bittium NeurOne system is a CE approved class IIa medical device.

Powerful and Versatile Electroencephalography System

By incorporating the latest advances in digital signal processing the Bittium NeurOne Tesla EEG System offers more accuracy, cleaner signals, faster sampling, modular solutions and more flexibility. NeurOne uses a specially developed Tesla amplifier with built in features including high dynamic range and special reduction technology to remove magnetic artifacts for TMS-EEG and fMRI-EEG applications. The NeurOne EEG system is available in 40 to 160 channels consists of a Main Unit and 1 up to 4 Tesla 40 channel amplifiers.

Multifunctional EEG System

Versatile System

Bittium NeurOne is a versatile system that can be used widely in different neuroscience and psychological applications. Bittium NeurOne™ Tesla is especially designed for use together with transcranial magnetic stimulators having extremely large dynamic range and special reduction technology to remove magnetic artifacts in short latencies. An advanced amplifier design enables using both AC and DC recording modes to be configured per the end-user's preference. The innovative Tesla MRI amplifier brings MRI compatibility to Bittium NeurOne.


The Bittium NeurOne system is designed to be used together with transcranial magnetic stimulators (TMS). High dynamic input range (+/- 430 mV in DC mode and +/-86 mV in AC mode) combined with wide analog band (DC..3500 Hz) keeps TMS induced artifacts short, allowing analysis of brain activations even in short latencies. Additionally, hardware mute function and software based online artifact reduction can be used.

EEG sample synchronized triggering: Triggers generated by the stimulation system (Presentation, Superlab, E-Prime) can be routed through the Bittium NeurOne Main Unit to the TMS device or other simulation device. Bittium NeurOne feeds out a trigger pulse in constant phase with EEG sampling allowing, accurate reproduction of TMS induced artifact for easier artifact removal.


Bittium NeurOne Tesla enables concurrent MRI and EEG measurements. When using the Bittium NeurOne Syncbox EEG acquisition is synchronized with the MRI scanner clock (e.g. 4 or 10 MHz). High dynamic input range (+/- 430 mV in DC mode and +/-86 mV in AC mode) combined with wide analog band (DC..3500 Hz) yields an accurate signal with no risk of saturation when using high gradient strengths.

EP & ERP research

The Bittium NeurOne system can handle virtually any evoked potential (EP) and event related potential (ERP) measurement task because of its extensive triggering interfaces, amount of measured channels, low noise and high sampling frequency.

EMG research with very high resolution and high amount of channels: The Bittium NeurOne system has up to 32 channels of dedicated bipolar channels for EMG use. The amount of usable channels can be increased even further by also utilizing the referential channels.

Group studies

Modularity of the system enables measuring up to 4 persons simultaneously on one system with fully synchronized video camera support. When used with our Brainstorm technology (Multi Syncbox) up to 10 Bittium NeurOne hardware systems can be synchronized together allowing 30 amplifiers to run with one clock – all recorded with one computer.

Other neuroscience and psychological measurements: You name the signal, Bittium NeurOne can measure it. Additionally, Bittium can customize the Bittium NeurOne system per your application. Ask for a quote and describe your application.

Real-time / Brain Computer Interface (BMI) Applications

EEG data can be fed into another application or analyzing computer using the Bittium NeurOne DigiOut Ethernet/UDP option. The Bittium NeurOne system quarantees a minimum delay ( <3 ms and jitter-free transfer). Additionally we have LSL proxy for DigiOut option.

Brain Computer Interface studies are made easy with a BCI2000 driver and Matlab SIMULINK driver.

For real time applications like Closed-loop TMS there is a 16 channels analog out option which allows a very low latency of 2.5 ms. The Optional Real-time Digital Out is also an option.


The video package consists of a camera with HDMI output (+ Mic In for synchronization), USB3 capture box, MPEG-2 codec and a VideoSync unit that sends triggers to the NeurOne EEG stream every 10 seconds. The same trigger is fed to the audio track of the video to allow accurate synchronization throughout the recording.

Data format compatibility

The data format of Bittium NeurOne is compatible with most popular EEG analysis modalities, including Matlab, EEGLAB, BrainVision Analyzer and BESA.

Innovative Features for TMS-EEG applications

  • Optional Real-time Digital out

    Data delivery is handled by the NeurOne EEG System hardware which allows the data to come out with a small ( < 3 ms) and constant delay important for Brain State or Frequency Dependent TMS applications also Closed-loop TMS. The NeurOne software with the optional Digiout function simultaneously records EEG and feeds the signals as UDP packets from the NeurOne Main Unit Ethernet/Digiout port to real-time systems including Speedgoat and Labview. Please see Real-time EEG-defined excitability states determine efficacy of TMS-induced plasticity in human motor cortex by Zrenner et al. 2018

Advances for fMRI-EEG Applications

EEG can be recorded in fMRI studies with the NeurOne Syncbox MRI to synchronize the clock for EEG acquisition to the clock output of the MRI system typically at 10 MHz. Offline analysis can be completed with BESA 7.0 (released in 2018) with 3 methods for artifact correction as published by Allen et al. 2000, Allen et al. 2000 and Moosmann et al. 2009 for fMRI-EEG studies.

Advanced Amplifier Technology

The amplifier design guarantees the best possible signal quality. Tesla amplifiers have a DSP (Digital Signal Processor) that takes care of digital filtering and decimation of signals from original data sampled at 80 kHz (and high resolution of 24 bits) to the actual sampling frequency. Data is collected at a high analog bandwidth and high frequency and then the final EEG signal is produced with digital processing (using multistage FIR filtering).

Each amplifier has 32 monopolar referential channels and 8 bipolar channels. Each channel can (individually) be set to operate in AC or DC mode.

AC Mode DC Mode
Amplifier Gain 50 10
Input Range +/- 86 mV +/- 430 mV
Analog Bandwidth 0.16 Hz-3500 Hz 0 Hz-3500 Hz
Noise 0-200Hz < 0.6 uV RMS < 0.8 uV RMS
Noise Full-band < 1.5 uV RMS < 2.0 uV RMS
Sensitivity 10.2 nV/bit 51 nV/bit
Impedance measurement 1 kΩ to 50 kΩ 1 kΩ to 50 kΩ

The amplifier is powered with a battery pack. The battery pack allows total electrical isolation of the amplifier from physical environment. Since communication from amplifier to the Main Unit is via optical cable, there is excellent signal quality regardless of the quality of the electricity or grounding of the building. Using the battery also keeps mains frequency (50/60 Hz) out of a shielded room if used.

The main unit acts as a central hub communicating with the amplifiers and the acquisition computer. It is also an isolated connection point for triggers coming from the stimulation/cognitive testing PC. Ethernet connection (TCP/IP) to the acquisition PC gives flexibility since the computer can be located far away from test person if necessary.


Description Powerful and Versatile Electroencephalography Research system
Monopolar Channels 32 channels per amplifier (full system 128) – expandable to 960 with Brainstorm technology
Bipolar Channels 8 channels per amplifier (full system 32) – expandable to 240 with Brainstorm technology
High level Channels Max. 8 per amplifier, connected through isolated analog adapter (to bipolar channels), range ± 5V or ± 10V (settable)
Digital (TTL) Inputs 2 isolated trigger in/out lines, 8-bit unisolated trigger in (with Syncbox up to 10x)
Sampling method All channels sampled simultaneously
Available sampling rates NeurOne™ NeurOne™ NeurOne™ Brainstorm technology with Syncbox
250 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz, 5000 Hz, 10 kHz (160 ch) 80 kHz (max. 10 x 20 channels, one amp/main unit), 40 kHz (max. 10 x 40 channels – one amp/main unit, 20 kHz (max. 1200 channels)
20 kHz (up to 80 ch), 40 kHz, (up to 40 ch), 80 kHz (up to 20 ch) 250 Hz, 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz, 5000 Hz, 10 kHz
A/D Resolution 24 bit
Input Impedance > 1 GΩ
CMRR Typically 106 dB
DC Mode AC Mode
Bandwidth LP: 3.5 kHz HP: 0,16 Hz, LP: 3.5 kHz
Full scale Input Range ± 430 mV ± 86 mV
System Gain 10 50
Sensitivity Typically x
Noise <0.8 µV RMS (0–200 Hz)
<2.0 µV RMS (DC-3500 Hz)
<0.6 µV RMS (0.16–200 Hz)
< 1.5 µV RMS (0.16–3500 Hz)
Transient Artifact Protection High Speed Switch (settable)
Mute Mute for AC/DC stage (settable)
Impedance measurement 1 kΩ to 200 kΩ
Tesla amplifier Power 6V, Fibers, Cap connection (40 ch),
Bipolar/Module (8 ch incl. power for modules ± 5V max. 1000 mA)
Main unit - Black Power 12V, Ethernet, Fibers to Headbox (x 4),
Trig In/Out (x 2), 8-bit Trig, Audio Out (2 ch) *
Main unit - High Power 12V, Ethernet, SPI, Isolated Headbox Power (x 4), Fibers to Headbox (x 4),
Serial Port (x 3), Trig In/Out (x 2), 8-bit Trig, Analog Out (16 ch), Audio Out (2 ch) *
Syncbox Master Trig In and Trig button, External Clock In input (BNC or fiber),
10 fiber connectors (1 Master, 9 Slave)
* optional real-time Ethernet/UDP digital out
Amplifier size/color 16 x 12 x 8 cm, 1.260 kg, Beige (Tesla), Black (Tesla MRI)
Main unit size, black 33 x 27 x 7 cm, 2.9 kg
Main unit size, high 33 x 27 x 12 cm, 3.6 kg
NeurOne™ software 64-bit Windows, optional BCI2000 and SIMULINK driver, video.
Readers for BESA and Matlab as well as EEGLAB plug-in available for free
System Classification MDD class lla. Type BF applied part
Safety Specification EN 60601-1, EN 60601-1-1, EN 60601-1-2, EN 60601-1-4, EN 60601-2-26
Warranty 2 years


EasyCap Active:
Active electrode technology has been integrated into the new EasyCap active. Impedance conversion circuits integrated into the electrode housing allow high quality recordings even with high electrode impedance values. Thus, preparation time is reduced significantly. Additionally, environmental noise and movement artefacts are nearly eliminated. EasyCap active may be used with almost every available EEG amplifier. Connectors are available upon request.

The name EasyCap represents a specialized, unique and patented concept, consisting of the following components:

  • Electrode cap: The Oeko-Tex certified and skin kindness material, is custom manufactured to fit standard head sizes from 36 to 62 cm.
  • Electrode holder/adaptor: Measured separately and placed at standardized or individual/customized positions, they serve as place holders and allow, by means of coloured markings, a quick and error-free way of plugging in the electrodes.
  • Ring electrodes: The high-quality electrodes made of Ag/AgCl (sintered material) allow along with a high level of DC stability also comfortable and easy impedance reduction.

NeurOne Software and Data Processing

NeurOne data is compatible with many analysis tools:

  • BESA also supports NeurOne data format directly
  • Matlab reader for NeurOne is available for free
  • Free EEGLAB plugin for NeurOne format
  • Brainstorm has direct support for NeurOne data format
  • Letswave 6 free software toolbox
  • NeurOne software has exports for EDF+ and BDF+
  • Brain Vision export (eeg/vhdr/vmkr)
  • NeurOne data format is open if the user wants to develop their own software


Bittium NeurOne system is a multifunctional tool for both neuroscience and psychological applications. Bittium NeurOne can also be customized by combining it with other devices/modules.

Here are the examples of additional accessories:

  • Inclinometer
  • Gonio- and Torsiometer
  • Heart rate sensor
  • Load cell, Force and Pressure sensors
  • Accelerometer
  • Gyro sensor
  • GSR sensor
  • EMG, ECG preamplifiers
  • Customized modules and transducers
Sample Set Up




  • fMRI-EEG
  • EP & ERP research
  • BCI Applications
  • TMS-EEG with sample synchronized triggering
  • EEG data UDP output for real-time application
  • Up to 30 person group studies
  • EMG research with very high resolution and high amount of channels


Sixuan He, Yaru Li, Xinning Le, Xiaoyu Han, Jingfeng Lin, Xiaohang Peng, Min Li, Ruobing Yang, Dezhong Yao, Pedro A. Valdes-Sosa, and Peng Ren
Assessment of Multivariate Information Transmission in Space-Time-Frequency Domain: A Case Study for EEG Signals

Pedro C. Gordon, Yu Fei Song, D. Blair Jovellar, Maryam Rostami, Paolo Belardinelli and Ulf Ziemann
Untangling TMS-EEG responses caused by TMS versus sensory input using optimized sham control and GABAergic challenge

Giorgio Leodori, Marco Mancuso, Davide Maccarrone, Matteo Tartaglia, Antonio Ianniello, FrancescoCerto, Viola Baione, Gina Ferrazzano, Leonardo Malimpensa, Daniele Belvisi, Carlo Pozzilli, Alfredo Berardelli, Antonella Conte
Neural bases of motor fatigue in multiple sclerosis: A multimodal approach using neuromuscular assessment and TMSEEG

Nicoletta Manzo , Giorgio Leodori , Giulia Ruocco, Daniele Belvisi , Shabbir Hussain I. Merchant , Giovanni Fabbrini , Alfredo Berardelli , Antonella Conte.
Cortical mechanisms of sensory trick in cervical dystonia

Najla Azaiez, Otto Loberg, Jarmo A. Hämäläinen , Paavo H.T. Leppänen.
Auditory P3a response to native and foreign speech in children with or without attentional deficit

Chaoxiong Ye Qianru Xu; Xueqiao Li; Elisa Vuoriainen; Qiang Liu; Piia Astikainen Institute of Brain and Psychological Sciences, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu, China.
Alterations in working memory maintenance of fearful face distractors in depressed participants: An ERP study

Najla Azaiez, Otto Loberg, Kaisa Lohvansuu, Sari Ylinen, Jarmo A. Hämäläinen and Paavo H. T. Leppänen.
Discriminatory Brain Processes of Native and Foreign Language in Children with and without Reading Difficulties

David Baur , Maria Ermolova , Victor Hugo Souza , Christoph Zrenner , Ulf Ziemann.
Phase-amplitude coupling in high-gamma frequency range induces LTP-like plasticity in human motor cortex: EEG-TMS evidence

Christoph Zrenner, Gábor Kozák, Natalie Schaworonkow, Johanna Metsomaa, David Baur, David Vetter, Daniel M. Blumberger, Ulf Ziemann, Paolo Belardinelli.
Corticospinal excitability is highest at the early rising phase of sensorimotor µ-rhythm

Marlene Topka, Marlieke Schneider, Christoph Zrenner, Paolo Belardinelli, Ulf Ziemann and Daniel Weiss.
Motor cortex excitability is reduced during freezing of upper limb movement in Parkinson’s disease

Julio C. Hernandez-Pavon, PhD, DSc; Nils Schneider-Garces, MS; John Patrick Begnoche, MS; Lee E. Miller, PhD; Tommi Raij, MD, PhD.
Targeted Modulation of Human Brain Interregional Effective Connectivity With Spike-timing Dependent Plasticity

Lukas Gassmann, Pedro Caldana Gordon, Ulf Ziemann Department of Neurology & Stroke, University of Tübingen, Germany.
Assessing effective connectivity of the cerebellum with cerebral cortex using TMS-EEG

Steven Pillen, Nicole Knodel, Dominik Hermle, Moritz Hanke, Ulf Ziemann, Til Ole Bergmann.
No robust online effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on corticospinal excitability

Christoph Zrenner, Paolo Belardinelli, Maria Ermolova, Pedro Caldana Gordon, Matti Stenroos, Brigitte Zrenner, Ulf Ziemann.
µ-rhythm phase from somatosensory but not motor cortex correlates with corticospinal excitability in EEG-triggered TMS

Marlene Rösner, Melinda Sabo, Laura-Isabelle Klatt, Edmund Wascher & Daniel Schneider Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Dortmund, Germany.
Preparing for the unknown: How working memory provides a link between perception and anticipated action

Dominical Šulcová, Adriana Salatino, Adrian Ivanoiu, André Mouraux Université Catholique de Louvain.
Investigating the origin of TMS-evoked brain potentials using topographic analysis

Julio C. Hernandez-Pavon, Dimitris Kugiumtzis, Christoph Zrenner, Vasilios K. Kimiskidis, Johanna Metsomaa.
Removing artifacts from TMS-evoked EEG: A methods review and a unifying theoretical framework

Andrea Fabbrini, Andrea Guerra, Margherita Giangrosso, Nicoletta Manzo, Giorgio Leodori, Patrizio Pasqualetti, Antonella Conte, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro, Alfredo Berardelli.
Transcranial alternating current stimulation modulates cortical processing of somatosensory information in a frequency- and time-specific manner

Pedro Caldana Gordon, Paolo Belardinelli, MattiStenroos, Ulf Ziemann, Christoph Zrenner Department of Neurology & Stroke, University of Tübingen, Germany.
Prefrontal theta phase-dependent rTMS-induced plasticity of cortical and behavioral responses in human cortex

Siri-Maria Kamp, Glen Forester Mariana Henken Malena Vittinghoff Luisa Knopf University of Trier.
On the role of item encoding mechanisms in associative memory in young and older adults: A mass univariate ERP study

Petro Julkunen, Vasilios K Kimiskidis, Paolo Belardinelli .
Bridging the gap: TMS-EEG from Lab to Clinic

Pedro Caldana Gordon, Sara Dörre, Paolo Belardinelli, Matti Stenroos, Brigitte Zrenner, Ulf Ziemann and Christoph Zrenner.
Prefrontal Theta-Phase Synchronized Brain Stimulation With Real-Time EEG-Triggered TMS

Mohammad Ali Salehinejad, Elham Ghanavati, Joerg Reinders, Jan G. Hengstler, Min-Fang Kuo, Michael A. Nitsche.
Sleep-dependent upscaled excitability and saturated neuroplasticity in the human brain: From brain physiology to cognition

Casarotto S, Fecchio M, Rosanova M, Varone G, D’Ambrosio S, Sarasso S, Pigorini A, Russo S, Comanducci A, Ilmoniemi RJ, Massimini M.
The rt-TEP tool: real-time visualization of TMS-Evoked Potential to maximize cortical activation and minimize artifacts

Xueqiao Li, Yongjie Zhu, Elisa Vuoriainen, Chaoxiong Ye & Piia Astikainen.
Decreased intersubject synchrony in dynamic valence ratings of sad movie contents in dysphoric individuals

Giorgio Leodori, Andrea Fabbrini, Maria Ilenia De Bartolo, Matteo Costanzo, Francesco Asci, Veronica Palma, Daniele Belvisi, Antonella Conte, Alfredo Berardelli.
Cortical mechanisms underlying variability in intermittent theta-burst stimulation-induced plasticity: A TMS-EEG study

Eric J. McDermott, Johanna Metsomaa, Paolo Belardinelli, Moritz Grosse‑Wentrup, Ulf Ziemann, Christoph Zrenner.
Predicting motor behavior: an efficient EEG signal processing pipeline to detect brain states with potential therapeutic relevance for VR‑based neurorehabilitation

Esra Al, Tilman Stephani, Melina Engelhardt, Arno Villringer, Vadim Nikulin Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences.
Cardiac Activity Impacts Cortical Motor Excitability

Sara J. Hussain , Mary K. Vollmer , Jessica Stimely , Gina Norato , Christoph Zrenner , Ulf Ziemann , Ethan R. Buch , Leonardo G. Cohen.
Phase-dependent offline enhancement of human motor memory

Elina S. Kangas, Elisa Vuoriainen, Xueqiao Li, Pessi Lyyra, and Piia Astikainen.
Somatosensory Deviance Detection ERPs and Their Relationship to Analogous Auditory ERPs and Interoceptive Accuracy

Mohammad Ali Salehinejad , Miles Wischnewski, Elham Ghanavati, Mohsen Mosayebi-Samani, Min-Fang Kuo & Michael A. Nitsche.
Cognitive functions and underlying parameters of human brain physiology are associated with chronotype

Maria Ermolova, Johanna Metsomaa Christoph Zrenner, Gábor Kozák, Laura Marzetti, Ulf Ziemann.
Spontaneous phase-coupling within cortico-cortical networks: How time counts for brain-state-dependent stimulation

Opposing signatures of neural excitability and sensory input in initial cortical responses differentially predict intensity perception.
Opposing signatures of neural excitability and sensory input in initial cortical responses differentially predict intensity perception

Maria-Ioanna Stefanou, Dragana Galevska, Christoph Zrenner, Ulf Ziemann, Jaakko O. Nieminen.
Interhemispheric symmetry of μ-rhythm phase-dependency of corticospinal excitability

David Baur , Dragana Galevska , Sara Hussain , Leonardo G. Cohen , Ulf Ziemann , Christoph Zrenner .
Induction of LTD-like corticospinal plasticity by low-frequency rTMS depends on pre-stimulus phase of sensorimotor m- rhythm

Bianca Zickerick, S. OliverKobald, Sven Thönes, Kristina Küper, Edmund Wascher, Daniel Schneider.
Don't stop me now: Hampered retrieval of action plans following interruptions

Anke Ninija Karabanov, Kristoffer Hougaard Madsen, Lærke Gebser Krohne, Hartwig Roman Siebner.
Does pericentral mu-rhythm “power” corticomotor excitability? – a matter of EEG perspective

Sven Thönes , Stefan Arnau , Edmund Wascher, Daniel Schneider.
Boosting working memory with accelerated clocks

Bianca Zickerick, Marlene Rösner, Melinda Sabo, and Daniel Schneider.

Henry Railo, Ilkka Suuronen, Valtteri Kaasinen, Mika Murtojärvi, Tapio Pahikkala, and Antti Airola.
Resting state EEG as a biomarker of Parkinson’s disease: Influence of measurement conditions

Henry Railo Niklas Nokelainen, Saara Savolainen, and Valtteri Kaasinen.
Deficits in monitoring self-produced speech in Parkinson’s disease

Nicoletta Manzo, Andrea Guerra, Margherita Giangrosso, Daniele Belvisi, Giorgio Leodori, Alfredo Berardelli* & Antonella Conte.
Investigating the effects of transcranial alternating current stimulation on primary somatosensory cortex

Maria-Ioanna Stefanou, Debora Desideri, XPaolo Belardinelli, Christoph Zrenner, and Ulf Ziemann.
Phase Synchronicity of µ-Rhythm Determines Efficacy of Interhemispheric Communication Between Human Motor Cortices

Simone Grassini, Katja Valli, Jérémie Souchet, Fabien Aubret, Giulia V.Segurini, Antti Revonsuo, Mika Koivisto.
Pattern matters: Snakes exhibiting triangular and diamond-shaped skin patterns modulate electrophysiological activity in human visual cortex

Roosa E.Kallionpää, Henri Pesonen, Annalotta Scheinin, Nils Sandman, RuutLaitio, Harry Scheinin, Antti Revonsuo, Katja Valli.
Single-subject analysis of N400 event-related potential component with five different methods

Tuominen, J., Kallio, S., Kaasinen, V.. & Railo, H. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
Segregated brain state during hypnosis

Stephan Hertweck, Desiée Weber, Hisham Alwanni, Fabian Unruh ,Martin Fischbach, Marc Erich Latoschik , Tonio Ball.
Brain Activity in Virtual Reality: Assessing Signal Quality of High-Resolution EEG While Using Head-Mounted Displays

Sara J Hussain, Mary K Vollmer, Romain Quentin, Iñaki Iturrate, Leonardo G. Cohen.
Voluntary movement initiation is not coupled to optimal sensorimotor oscillatory phases

Til Ole Bergmann, Anne Lieb, Christoph Zrenner ,Ulf Ziemann.
Pulsed Facilitation of Corticospinal Excitability by the Sensorimotor µ-Alpha Rhythm

Kyösti Pennanen, Johanna Närväinen, Saara Vanhatalo, Roope Raisamo, Nesli Sozer.
Effect of virtual eating environment on consumers’ evaluations of healthy and unhealthy snacks

Bianca Zickerick, Sven Thönes, S. Oliver Kobald, Edmund Wascher, Daniel Schneider and Kristina Küper.
Differential Effects of Interruptions and Distractions on Working Memory Processes in an ERP Study

Christoph Zrenner, Dragana Galevska, Jaakko O. Nieminen, David Baur, Maria-Ioanna Stefanou, Ulf Ziemann.
The shaky ground truth of real-time phase estimation

Leodori G, Belvisi D, De Bartolo MI, Fabbrini A, Costanzo M, Vial F, Conte A, Hallett M, Berardelli A.
Re-emergent Tremor in Parkinson's Disease: The Role of the Motor Cortex.

Stephani, , Waterstraat, G., Haufe, S., Curio, G. , Villringer, A. , Nikulin, V. V..
Temporal signatures of criticality in human cortical excitability as probed by early somatosensory responses

Stefanou, M. I., Baur, D., Belardinelli, P., Bergmann, T. O., Blum, C., Gordon, P. C., Nieminen, J. O., Zrenner, B., Ziemann, U., Zrenner, C..
Brain State-dependent Brain Stimulation with Real-time Electroencephalography-Triggered Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Pedro Caldana Gordon , Christoph Zrenner , Debora Desideri , Paolo Belardinelli , Brigitte Zrenner , André Russowsky Brunoni , Ulf Ziemann.
Modulation of cortical responses by transcranial direct current stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: A resting- state EEG and TMS-EEG study

Brigitte Zrenner, Christoph Zrenner, Pedro Caldana Gordon, Paolo Belardinelli, Eric J. McDermott, Surjo R. Soekadar, Andreas J. Fallgatter, Ulf Ziemann, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus.
Brain oscillation-synchronized stimulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in depression using real-time EEG- triggered TMS

Yongjie Zhu, Xueqiao Li, Tapani Ristaniemi, Fengyu Cong.

Debora Desideri, Christoph Zrenner, Pedro Caldana Gordon, Ulf Ziemann, Paolo Belardinelli.
Nil effects of μ-rhythm phase-dependent burst-rTMS on cortical excitability in humans: A resting-state EEG and TMS-EEG study

Giorgio Leodori, Nivethida Thirugnanasambandam, Hannah Conn, Traian Popa, Alfredo Berardelli and Mark Hallett.
Intracortical Inhibition and Surround Inhibition in the Motor Cortex: A TMS-EEG Study

S. Pillen, N. Knodel, C. Zrenner, U. Ziemann, T. Bergmann.
A setup for studying very early TMS-evoked EEG potentials: prospects and pitfalls

Sofie Therese Hansen, Apit Hemakom, Mads Gylling Safeldt, Lærke Karen Krohne, Kristoffer Hougaard Madsen, Hartwig R. Siebner, Danilo P. Mandic, and Lars Kai Hansen.
Unmixing Oscillatory Brain Activity by EEG Source Localization and Empirical Mode Decomposition

Natalie Schaworonkow, Pedro Caldana Gordon, Paolo Belardinelli , Ulf Ziemann, Til Ole Bergmann and Christoph Zrenner.
μ-Rhythm Extracted With Personalized EEG Filters Correlates With Corticospinal Excitability in Real-Time Phase-Triggered EEG-TMS

R. E. Kallionpää, A. Scheinin, R. A. Kallionpää, N. Sandman, M. Kallioinen, R. Laitio, T. Laitio, K. Kaskinoro3, T. Kuusela, A. Revonsuo, H. Scheinin and K. Valli.
Spoken words are processed during dexmedetomidine-induced unresponsiveness

L. Radek, R. E. Kallionpää, M. Karvonen, A. Scheinin, A. Maksimow, J. Långsjö, K. Kaisti, T. Vahlberg, A. Revonsuo, H. Scheinin and K. Valli.
Dreaming and awareness during dexmedetomidine and propofol-induced unresponsiveness

Annalotta Scheinin, M.D., Roosa E. Kallionpää, M.Sc., Duan Li, Ph.D., Minna Kallioinen, M.D., Kaike Kaisti, M.D., Jaakko Långsjö, M.D., Anu Maksimow, M.D., Tero Vahlberg, M.Sc., Katja Valli, Ph.D., George A. Mashour, M.D., Antti Revonsuo, Ph.D., Harry Scheinin, M.D..
Differentiating Drug-related and State-related Effects of Dexmedetomidine and Propofol on the Electroencephalogram

Ivan Alekseichuk, Arnaud Y. Falchier, Gary Linn, Ting Xu, Michael P. Milham, Charles E. Schroeder, Alexander Opitz.
Electric Field Dynamics In The Brain During Multi-Electrode Transcranial Electric Stimulation

Martin Völker, Lukas D.J. Fiederer, Sofie Berberich, Jiří Hammer, Joos Behncke, Pavel Kršek, Martin Tomášek, Petr Marusič, Peter C. Reinacher, Volker A. Coenen, Moritz Helias, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Wolfram Burgard and Tonio Ball.
The Dynamics of Error Processing in the Human Brain as Reflected by High-Gamma Activity in Noninvasive and Intracranial EEG. Abbreviated title: High-Gamma Activity in Human Error Processing

D. Kuhner, L.D.J. Fiederer,, J. Aldinger, F. Burget, M. Völker, R.T. Schirrmeister, C. Do, J. Bödecker, B. Nebel, T. Ball, W. Burgard.
Deep Learning Based BCI Control of a Robotic Service Assistant Using Intelligent Goal Formulation

Juha Gogulski, Rasmus Zetter, Mikko Nyrhinen, Antti Pertovaara and Synnöve Carlson.
Neural Substrate for Metacognitive Accuracy of Tactile Working Memory

Martin Voelker, Sofie Berberich, Ecaterina Andreev, Lukas D.J. Fiederer, Wolfram Burgard, Tonio Ball.

Mika Koivisto, Simone Grassini, Mikko Hurme, Niina Salminen-Vaparanta, HenryRailo, Victor Vorobyev, Jussi Tallu, Teemu Paavilainen, AnttiRevonsuo.
TMS-EEG reveals hemispheric asymmetries in top-down influences of posterior intraparietal cortex on behavior and visual event-related potentials

Edmund Wascher, Holger Heppner, Tina Möckel, Sven Oliver Kobald, Stephan Getzmann.
Eye-blinks in choice response tasks uncover hidden aspects of information processing

Dominik Welke, Joos Behncke, Marina Hader, Robin Tibor Schirrmeister, Andreas Schönau, Boris Eßmann, Oliver Müller, Wolfram Burgard, Tonio Ball.
Brain Responses During Robot-Error Observation

Martin Voelker, Lukas D. J. Fiederer, Sofie Berberich, Jiří Hammer, Joos Behncke, Pavel Kršek, Martin Tomášek, Petr Marusič, Peter C. Reinacher, Volker A. Coenen, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Wolfram Burgard, Tonio Ball.
Global and Local Dynamics of High-Gamma Activity Underlying Error Processing in the Human Brain Revealed by Noninvasive and Intracranial EEG

Robin Tibor Schirrmeister , Jost Tobias Springenberg, Lukas Dominique Josef Fiederer ,Martin Glasstetter, Katharina Eggensperger,Michael Tangermann, Frank Hutter, Wolfram Burgard, and Tonio Ball.
Deep Learning With Convolutional Neural Networks for EEG Decoding and Visualization

Felix Burget, Lukas Dominique Josef Fiederer, Daniel Kuhner, Martin Völker, Johannes Aldinger, Robin Tibor Schirrmeister, Chau Do, Joschka Boedecker, Bernhard Nebel, Tonio Ball, Wolfram Burgard.
Acting Thoughts: Towards a Mobile Robotic Service Assistant for Users with Limited Communication Skills

Syed Ariful Alam, Saara Pentikäinen, Johanna Närväinen, Ulla, Holopainen-Mantila, Kaisa Poutanen, Nesli Sozer.
Effects of structural and mechanical textural properties of brittle cereal foams on mechanisms of oral breakdown

Saara Pentikäinen, Nesli Sozer, Johanna Närväinen, Saara Ylätalo, Pekka Teppola, Jukka Jurvelin,Ulla Holopainen-Mantila, Riitta Törrönen, Anna-Marja Aura, Kaisa Poutanen.
Effects of wheat and rye bread structure on mastication process and bolus properties

Laura Sokka, Marianne Leinikka, Jussi Korpela, Andreas Henelius, Jani Lukander, Satu Pakarinen, Kimmo Alho, Minna Huotilainen.
Shifting of attentional set is inadequate in severe burnout: Evidence from an event-related potential study

Kimmo Alho, Laura Sokka, Marianne Leinikka, Jussi Korpela, Andreas Henelius, Lauri Ahonen,Claude Alain, Minna Huotilainen.
Job burnout is associated with dysfunctions in brain mechanisms of voluntary and involuntary attention

Christoph Zrenner, Paolo Belardinelli, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus and Ulf Ziemann.
Closed-Loop Neuroscience and Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation: A Tale of Two Loops

Guangjun Wang, Yuying Tian, Shuyong Jia, Wenting Zhou, Weibo Zhang.
Acupuncture Regulates the Heart Rate Variability

Wang Guangjun, Tian Yuying, Jia Shuyong, Zhou Wenting, and Zhang Weibo.
Bilateral Hegu Acupoints Have the Same Effect on the Heart Rate Variability of the Healthy Subjects

Laura Sokka, Minna Huotilainen, Marianne Leinikka, Jussi Korpela, Andreas Henelius , Claude Alain, Kiti Müller, Satu Pakarinen.
Alterations in attention capture to auditory emotional stimuli in job burnout: An event-related potential study

Satu Pakarinen, Laura Sokka, Marianne Leinikka, Andreas Henelius, Jussi Korpela,Minna Huotilainen.
Fast determination of MMN and P3a responses to linguistically and emotionally relevant changes in pseudoword stimuli

Kati Pettersson, Sharman Jagadeesan, Kristian Lukander, Andreas Henelius, Edward Hæggström and Kiti Müller.
Algorithm for automatic analysis of electro-oculographic data

Guangjun Wang, Yuying Tian, Shuyong Jia,Wenting Zhou, and Weibo Zhang.
Pilot Study of Acupuncture Point Laterality: Evidence from Heart Rate Variability

Nora Sihvola, Riitta Korpela, Andreas Henelius, Anu Holm, Minna Huotilainen, Kiti Müller, Tuija Poussa.
Breakfast high in whey protein or carbohydrates improves coping with workload in healthy subjects

Korpela, J. ; Brain Work Res. Centre, Finnish Inst. of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland ; Vigario, R. ; Huotilainen, M.
The effect of automatic blink correction on auditory evoked potentials

Paavo Pitkänen, Jukka Kinnunen, Tarmo Lipping (IEEE, Senior Member).
A New Platform for Realtime BCI Applications.


Items marked with* are investigational devices and for research use only. CAUTION - Investigational Device. Limited by Federal (or United States) law to investigational use.